|Domains and Hosts on the Internet|
|Network connections on
the Internet have names and addresses that obey certain
conventions. For computers, the names conform to the
conventions of the Domain Name System, which maps an
Internet Address to the more easily remembered host and
domain name. The Internet Protocol (or IP) Address is a
set of numbers that expresses the exact connection
between a computer and the network on the Internet. It is
easier to understand Domain naming, however, if you look
at an IP address first. IP addresses have four sets of
numbers (octets) separated by periods or dots. These
combined parts are unique on the network and allow the
network to know specifically which computer is to receive
which electronic packet as well as specifically from
which computer the electronic packet came. The computer
is known as a host, and the IP address, its network
connection, is known as the host address. The IP address
is difficult to remember, is easy to mis-enter, and will
not necessarily remain the same if someone needs to
reorganize their network. The recognition of the
difficulty with these addresses brought the Domain Name
System (DNS), which maps IP addresses to a set of names.
There are six (6) common domain types that are nongeographical:
The geographically based top-level domains use two-letter country designations specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 3166). For example, .us is used for the United States, .ca for Canada (not California!), .uk or .gb for the United Kingdom or Great Britain, and .il for Israel. A complete list can be found at the Internic. Using WWW, look at http://www.internic.net/, and choose "Information Services", "About the Internet", and "Global Internet Information". The information about Country Codes is located at ISO 3166 Country Codes.
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